However the development of writing systems, and their partial supplantation of traditional oral systems of communication, have been sporadic, uneven, and slow. Once established, writing systems on the whole change more slowly than their spoken counterparts and often preserve features and expressions that no longer exist in the spoken language. The greatest benefit of writing is that it provides the tool by which society can record information consistently and in greater detail, something that could not be achieved as well previously by spoken word. Writing allows societies to transmit information and to share knowledge. Recorded history edit main articles: Recorded history and Early literature Scholars make a reasonable distinction between prehistory and history of early writing 10 but have disagreed concerning when prehistory becomes history and when proto-writing became "true writing." The definition is largely subjective. 11 Writing, in its most general terms, is a method of recording information and is composed of graphemes, which may in turn be composed of glyphs.
History of writing - wikipedia
An additional possibility is the undeciphered Rongorongo script of Easter Island. It is debated whether this is true writing and, if it is, whether it is another case of cultural diffusion of writing. The oldest example is from 1851, 139 years after their first contact with Europeans. One explanation is that the script was about inspired by Spain 's written annexation proclamation in 1770. 9 Various other known cases of cultural diffusion of writing exist, where the general concept of writing was transmitted from one culture to another, but the specifics of the system were independently developed. Recent examples are the Cherokee syllabary, invented by sequoyah, and the pahawh Hmong system for writing the Hmong language. Vinča symbols which are dated around 5,500 response bce, are a remnant of Vinča culture which have been proposed to have created a script a millenia before those in the middle east. Writing systems edit main article: Writing system Symbolic communication systems are distinguished from writing systems in that one must usually understand something of the associated spoken language to comprehend the text. In contrast, symbolic systems, such as information signs, painting, maps, and mathematics, often do not require prior knowledge of a spoken language. Every human community possesses language, a feature regarded by many as an innate and defining condition of mankind (see origin of language ).
Independent writing systems also arose. Egypt around 3100 bc and in China around 1200 bc in Shang dynasty 4 but historians debate review whether these writing systems were developed completely independently of Sumerian writing or whether either or both were inspired by sumerian writing via a process of cultural diffusion. That is, it is possible that the concept of representing language by using writing, though not necessarily the specifics of how such a system worked, was passed on by traders or merchants traveling between the two regions. Ancient Chinese characters are considered by many to be an independent invention because there is no evidence of contact between ancient China and the literate civilizations of the near East, 5 and because of the distinct differences between the mesopotamian and Chinese approaches to logography. 6 Egyptian script is dissimilar from Mesopotamian cuneiform, but similarities in concepts and in earliest attestation suggest that the idea of writing may have come to Egypt from Mesopotamia. 7 In 1999, Archaeology magazine reported that the earliest Egyptian glyphs date back to 3400 bc, which "challenge the commonly held belief that early logographs, pictographic symbols representing a specific place, object, or quantity, first evolved into more complex phonetic symbols in Mesopotamia." 8 Similar. In addition, the script is still undeciphered, and there is debate about whether the script is true writing at all or, instead, some kind of proto-writing or nonlinguistic sign system.
Writing numbers for the purpose of record keeping began long before the writing of language. History of writing ancient numbers for how the writing of numbers began. It is generally agreed that true writing of language (not only numbers) was independently conceived and developed in at least two ancient civilizations and possibly more. The two places where it is most certain that the concept of writing was both conceived and developed independently are in ancient. Sumer (in, mesopotamia around feasibility 3100 bc, and. Mesoamerica by 300 bc, 3 because no precursors have been found to either of these in their respective regions. Mesoamerican scripts are known, the oldest being from the. Olmec or, zapotec of, mexico.
The history of writing traces the development of expressing language by letters or other marks 1 and also the studies and descriptions of these developments. In the history of how writing systems have evolved in different human civilizations, more complete writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, systems of ideographic or early mnemonic symbols. True writing, in which the content of a linguistic utterance is encoded so that another reader can reconstruct, with a fair degree of accuracy, the exact utterance written down, is a later development. It is distinguished from proto-writing, which typically avoids encoding grammatical words and affixes, making it more difficult or impossible to reconstruct the exact meaning intended by the writer unless a great deal of context is already known in advance. One of the earliest forms of written expression is cuneiform. 2, contents, inventions of writing edit, see also: List of languages by first written accounts. Sumer, an ancient civilization of southern. Mesopotamia, is believed to be the place where written language was first invented around 3100.
The Importance of a first Impression - brian Tracy
Your resume should not be longer than one page. Aim to fill the whole page, while still having a good forgiveness amount of white space in the margins. Because employers get so many job applications, something small like a typo could cost you a job. Be sure to thoroughly proofread your resume before sending it to an employer. Read it for any spelling and grammar errors, as well as any inconsistencies in format (such as using different styles of bullet points). Ask a friend or family member, or a career services counselor, to also look at it for you. Resume design Tips Many people are surprised to learn that resume design is just as important as content, but its absolutely true.
Research suggests that your resume has less than 20 seconds to make the right impression, so it must be eye-catching and easy to read. There are many different ways to design and format your resume. Check out these resume templates to help you format your own resume. Using a template will make it easier to create your resume. Not only will it save you time, but it can also reduce formatting errors. You can look at these other resume templates available through Microsoft Word and google docs.
Beneath each experience, you can list some of the responsibilities you held in that job or position. However, go beyond simply saying what you did. List any achievements that prove you can add value to an organization. For example, perhaps you won Employee of the month at work. Or maybe you created a new filing system that increased efficiency at an office.
Include any examples of times you added value to a company or achieved something. Look back at the list of keywords you generated of common skills and requirements for the jobs you are applying for. Try to use some of these keywords throughout your resume. This will show the hiring manager, at a glance, that you are a good fit for the job. Especially when writing your first resume, its a good idea to look at resume examples. They can help you decide how to format your resume, and what kind of information to include. Make sure to change any sample resume to include information that is specific to you, and to the job you are applying for. Check out these student resume examples, and these other resume examples. Especially if this is your first resume, you might not have a lot of information to include.
Tips for Writing your First Resume
Employers are impressed by recent graduates academic achievements, so highlight these. Emphasize all related experience. You might have limited work experience, but you have plenty of other experiences you can draw. Think about clubs you have participated in, internships you have held, and volunteer positions you have worked. All of these can be listed under Related Experience or a similar category. Leave out what is not relevant. The key is to slogan emphasize those things that demonstrate your value to the company, and to leave out those things that dont. For example, if you are looking to work in Information Systems, statement your programming internship will be important, but the fact that you have won awards for water skiing won't! Don't include hobbies or experiences unless they relate to the job.
student or recent student, your education is one of your greatest assets. Education section of your resume towards the top of the page. Include not only the school you went to and the degree you received, but any other achievements. Perhaps you had a high. Gpa, or made the deans List. If you studied abroad, you might include this as well.
To do this successfully, you need to know what potential employers are looking for. Start party by researching job postings that interest you. Make a list of keywords you find in the job listings, such as frequently mentioned requirements or skills. You will want to focus on these in your resume to impress the employer. Ask experienced professionals what they consider important when they make hiring decisions. Consider holding some informational interviews with people in your field to get a sense of what is most important for the kinds of jobs youre looking. You can also read professional publications and websites related to your target industry.
5 Tips for Writing an Effective slogan
Cavan Images/Getty Images, if you are worried about writing your first resume, or struggling with the task, you're not alone! However, it does points not have to be intimidating. Many students and recent graduates worry that they dont have enough experience to create a compelling resume. There are many ways to emphasize your skills and experiences even if this is your first job. Read below for advice on how to write a strong first resume that will generate interest and interviews. What to do before Writing your Resume. Before you even start to write your resume, there are a few steps you can take. Keep in mind that the goal of your resume is to show the employer that you are a strong candidate for the job, and that you will add value to the company.