Criterion A: Stressor, this criterion concerns the traumatic event that caused your character to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. The trauma could have happened to your character directly, they may have witnessed it happen to another, learnt of it happening to a close family member or friend, or been repeatedly exposed to traumatising details of the event. Lets break those down into sections and look at what could be classed as a traumatising event. Criterion A1: your character experienced the event directly. The traumatising events could include (but are not limited to exposure to war, as a combatant or a civilian; threatened or actual physical assault, such as mugging or physical abuse; threatened or actual sexual assault, such as rape or abusive sexual contact; being kidnapped, taken. Life-threatening illnesses or debilitating medical conditions dont necessarily count as a traumatising event, unless the medical incident was sudden and catastrophic, such as waking up during surgery or going into anaphylactic shock. Criterion A2: your character witnessed the event happen to others. The traumatising events could include (but are not limited to witnessing threatened or serious injury, unnatural death, physical or sexual abuse of another person due to violent assault, domestic violence, war or disaster, or a medical catastrophe in their child, such as a life-threatening haemorrhage.
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That Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder doesnt affect everyone in the same way. There is no one right way to portray it in your writing, no rigid set of symptoms for you to check off a list. Therefore, id recommend you go a step further in your research and read firsthand accounts of people living with ptsd. The diagnostic criteria only give bond you a brief overview of what the symptoms of ptsd are; the story of day-to-day life for someone living with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder will give you the reality behind. And its the ability to create an emotional experience that makes readers connect with you and your characters. But before you go off looking for those firsthand accounts, familiarise yourself with what the diagnostic criteria look like in context. Ive created a more understandable translation of the criteria outlined. How to tell If your Character Has Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, with a focus on what they actually mean and how you can write about them in your story. After that, the rest is up to you, dear writer. Please note: For the sake of simplicity and easy reading, Ill be referring to the trauma as an event (singular) throughout this post, but please be aware that the original trauma could have occurred several times or across several events, not just the one.
Before you tuck into the translations of hibernation the diagnostic criteria, please absorb the important phrase Im about to throw at you. Now what does it mean? As you may have noted while reading the. Psychology segment, criteria a to e are each made up of several symptoms, of which your character must experience at least one or two. That means theres a lot of variation in the symptoms that someone with ptsd might experience. One person could have predominantly fear-based intrusion symptoms, like those in Criterion b, while another may have primarily arousal- and reactivity-based symptoms, like those in Criterion. The two may present very different symptoms and yet both be diagnosed with ptsd. So what does that mean for your writing?
How can they affect your characters life? How do you write about ptsd in a way thats not neutral and analytic but emotive? Thats the subject of the next two posts. To keep in Mind: The information in this post comes from the. Dsm-5 (see further reading). Please do not use it to diagnose yourself or others. It isnt intended to be a substitute for professional advice so do consult a qualified clinical professional if you have any questions about the diagnosis criteria. Feel free to use this information to diagnose your characters, however.
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Lets take a closer look at Criteria a. No one wants to read about a character with an easy life. Victories without a struggle arent meaningful. They dont leave you thinking about them for days, weeks or months afterwards, your fingers still tingling from the magic on the page. Put your characters through the wringer. And sometimes that wringer involves subjecting them to traumatising experiences.
In cases such as these, your character could go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (ptsd). What does it take to be diagnosed with ptsd? All was revealed in the previous Psychology storycraft post, how to tell If your Character Has Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Knowing the list of symptoms found full in ptsd isnt enough on its own, however. I did my best to make the diagnostic criteria as understandable and applicable to writing as possible, but theres something impersonal about reading off a list of symptoms—and writing is all about creating that personal connection. What exactly do the criteria mean?
Read more » Post-concussive brain injury often misdiagnosed : A study found that soldiers who had suffered a concussive injury in battle often were misdiagnosed on their return. Read more » Children with migraine often misdiagnosed : A migraine often fails to be correctly diagnosed in pediatric patients. These patients are not the typical migraine sufferers, but migraines can also. Read more » Undiagnosed anxiety disorders related to depression : Patients with depression (see symptoms of depression ) may also have undiagnosed anxiety. Read more » Vitamin B12 deficiency under-diagnosed : The condition of Vitamin B12 deficiency is a possible misdiagnosis of various conditions, such as multiple sclerosis (see.
Read more » read more about Misdiagnosis and Dysgraphia dysgraphia: Research Doctors specialists Research related physicians and medical specialists: Nerve specialists: Mental health Specialists: neurology (Brain/cns specialists more specialists.» Other doctor, physician and specialist research services: Hospitals clinics: Dysgraphia research quality ratings and patient safety. (Source: excerpt from ninds dysgraphia information Page: ninds ) More about prognosis of Dysgraphia dysgraphia: Broader Related Topics Types of Dysgraphia dysgraphia message boards Related forums and medical stories: User Interactive forums read about other experiences, ask a question about Dysgraphia, or answer someone else's. Specifically, the disorder causes a person's writing to be distorted or incorrect. (Source: excerpt from ninds dysgraphia information Page: ninds ) Definitions of Dysgraphia: Impaired ability to learn to write - (Source - wordNet.1) Contents for Dysgraphia: User Surveys and Discussion Forums. So your character has Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. But what does that actually mean for them? How might their symptoms manifest and affect their lives?
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Read more » Bipolar disorder misdiagosed as various conditions by primary physicians : Bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder) often fails to be diagnosed correctly by primary care physicians. Read more » Eating disorders under-diagnosed in men : The typical patient loyalty with an eating disorder is female. The result is that men with eating disorders often fail to be diagnosed or have a delayed diagnosis. Read more » Depression undiagnosed in teenagers : Serious bouts of depression can be undiagnosed in teenagers. The "normal" moodiness of teenagers can cause severe medical depression to be overlooked. See misdiagnosis of depression or symptoms. Read more » Brain pressure degenerative condition often misdiagnosed as dementia : A condition that results from an excessive pressure of csf within the brain is often misdiagnosed.
Read more dementia may online be a drug interaction : A common scenario in aged care is for a patient to show mental decline to dementia. Whereas this can, of course, occur. Read more » Mild traumatic brain injury often remains undiagnosed : Although the symptoms of severe brain injury are hard to miss, it is less clear for. Read more » adhd under-diagnosed in adults : Although the over-diagnoses of adhd in children is a well-known controversy, the reverse side related to adults. Some adults can remain undiagnosed, and indeed the. Read more » mtbi misdiagnosed as balance problem : When a person has symptoms such as vertigo or dizziness, a diagnosis of brain injury may go overlooked. This is particularly true of mild.
Behavior: Home testing. Mental health (Adults home testing more. wrongly diagnosed with Dysgraphia? Dysgraphia: Related Patient Stories, causes of Dysgraphia, read more about causes of Dysgraphia. More information about causes of Dysgraphia: Disease topics Related to dysgraphia, research the causes of these diseases that are similar to, or related to, dysgraphia: Dysgraphia: Undiagnosed Conditions, commonly undiagnosed diseases in related medical categories: Misdiagnosis and Dysgraphia. Undiagnosed stroke leads to misdiagnosed aphasia : bbc news uk reported on a man who had been institutionalized and treated for mental illness.
strategies, suggest use of word processor, avoid chastising student for sloppy, careless work. Use oral exams, allow use of tape recorder for lectures. Allow the use of a note taker. Provide notes or outlines to reduce the amount of writing required, reduce copying aspects of work (pre-printed math problems). Allow use of wide rule paper and graph paper. Suggest use of pencil grips and /or specially designed writing aids, provide alternatives to written assignments (video-taped reports, audio-taped reports). Excerpted from the lda of California and uc davis. Diseases dysgraphia » Introduction, dysgraphia: Introduction, dysgraphia: Dysgraphia is a neurological disorder characterized by writing disabilities. Specifically, the disorder causes a person's.
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A person with this specific learning disability may have problems including illegible handwriting, inconsistent spacing, poor spatial planning on paper, poor spelling, and difficulty composing writing as well as thinking and writing at the same time. Signs and, symptoms, may have illegible printing and cursive writing (despite appropriate time and attention given the task). Shows inconsistencies: mixtures of print and cursive, upper and lower case, or irregular sizes, shapes or slant of letters. Has unfinished words or letters, omitted words. Inconsistent spacing between words and letters. Exhibits strange wrist, body or paper position. Has difficulty pre-visualizing letter surgery formation, copying or writing is slow or labored, shows poor spatial planning on paper. Has cramped or unusual grip/may complain of sore hand. Has great difficulty thinking and writing at the same time (taking notes, creative writing.