Credibility at Trial, perhaps the biggest mistake made at a permanent orders hearing is the failure to put on a good case, because of your attorney's lack of skill and lack of understanding the power of credibility. Often, trials are won or lost based on credibility. . How believable and truthful are the parties and witnesses? This means that the judge often rules for the party who most appears to be telling the truth. Too often the party who really should put on a good case to prove their case, relies on conflicting and complicated testimony to make their point. Often that does not work, because the judge does not know who to believe and important details are lost in the process. The judge is not going to spend hours trying to sort out and tabulate numbers. The judge will not put on your case.
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failure to put on a good marriage case through the use of summary exhibits (not prepared and. . your own dirty hands, where you also have a lot of fault as to the dispute. Tip: Few hearings should ever be held. If one of the parties refuses to properly mediation or otherwise settle the case, it is generally the same party who loses at trial because he or she is not prepared. . good trial preparation is a tremendous aid to help settle a case. . If both parties are well-prepared for trial, then the case should not go to trial. The hiding of assets and income is generally found out at or before the hearing. Any misrepresentation or failure to disclose can be shown by the wise selection and use of documentary evidence. . Such as bank statements and the cost of the current standard of living. In other words, a self-employed person who is supporting a significant other as well as paying a mortgage and truck payments, has to be making a minimal income to support that lifestyle.
After listening to the testimony and reviewing the documentary evidence, the judge then makes a decision and makes specific orders as to the division of great property and debts, use of property such as the family home and vehicles, parenting time, child support, and maintenance (alimony.). In most cases, both parties to a divorce case feel that the judges orders are unfair. . One of the reasons is that the parties often have unreasonable expectations. Another reason is that the judge may have made a mistake as to certain facts. Perhaps the biggest mistakes made at a hearing include:. . Misrepresentation or failure to disclose (which is proven during the hearing. . Lack of credibility, where you are not likely to be believed (who is telling the truth?
Colorado divorce contested hearings, in a divorce case, colorado courts may hold a temporary orders hearing and/or a permanent orders hearing. . And sometimes there are hearings for other purposes, such as refusal to follow court orders (contempt ions of court.). In almost all cases, a hearing is a poor way to settle disputed issues. It is time consuming, costly, and almost always increases the hostility between the parties. The best solution is to negotiate a settlement agreement (and temporary orders as discussed above. In a hearing (sometimes called a trial the judge listens to testimony by the parties, witnesses, family evaluators, and experts. . The judge also reviews documents and other exhibits. In Colorado, family law cases are not heard in front of a jury. Only before a judge or magistrate.
The Cryonics Institute has built computer-controlled cooling boxes which cool to liquid nitrogen temperatures at varying rates as directed by software. (For more details see computer-Controlled cooling Boxes.) cooling of vitrified tissues should be quick before -120C (solidification temperature) to prevent ice formation, and very slow below that temperature to minimize cracking due to thermal stress. Plans are being made to maintain vitrified neuro patients at -140C, but it is questionable that this can be done as cheaply or securely as liquid nitrogen storage. Liquid nitrogen is much less expensive and readily-available than any substance with a boiling temperature near -140C. Cryonics patients are stored in "thermos bottles" (dewars) that boil-off slowly - only needing to be topped-off every few weeks. Electrical cooling is more vulnerable to mechanical or power failure - and is much more expensive. It would be good to avoid cracking, but cracking may well be a form of damage that can be repaired by future technology. However, the more damage that can be eliminated - and the less reliance on future technology - the better the prospects for cryonics patients. (For more details on issues associated with cryonics cooling, see my essay physical Parameters of cooling in Cryonics.) (return to contents) home page.
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Glycerol has been used in cryonics for most of cryonics history. But like most cryoprotectants, glycerol can be toxic at high concentrations. Moreover, glycerol will not completely vitrify at a concentration less than 55v/v - which is too viscous for cryonics perfusion. Recently, cryoprotectant mixtures have been developed at 21st Century medicine (21CM) which are being used at Alcor to cryopreserve neuro (head-only) cryonics patients with less than.2 ice formation. Toxicity is so low that hippocampal slices in experimental rats have been cryopreserved to -140C and rewarmed with 100 viability. Rapid cooling ice-blockers have provided the crucial assistance which has made brain vitrification possible. Yuri pichugin at the Cryonics Institute has developed a similar vitrification solution.
10C seems to be an optimal temperature for cryoprotectant perfusion. Perfusion will be through the femoral artery/vein, direct access to the heart statement or (for a neuro patient) directly through the carotids arteries. (For more details on the perfusion process, see perfusion diffusion in Cryonics Protocol.) (return to contents). Cooldown to cryogenic temperatures silicone oil can remain liquid to nearly -100C. Whole body patients at Alcor were cooled in a silicone oil bath at a rate.1c for an Alcor neuro patient perfused with vitrifying cryoprotectant, cooling to a solidification temperature (about -120C) should be as rapid as possible. The head is placed in a chamber that circulates high velocity nitrogen gas at -135c - which cools at a rate.4C per minute. For other patients - and for neuro patients being cooled from -120C to -196C (liquid nitrogen temperature cooling must be slower to avoid cracking from thermal stress.
Blood must be replaced with isotonic (saline-like) solution which will prevent osmotic shrinking or swelling of cells tissues. The blood replacement solution should also contain nutrient as well as an ingredient like hydroxyEthyl Starch (HES) which (like blood albumin) prevents tissue edema. Viaspan - a commercial product used for preserving organs being saved for transplant - fits the criteria for a cryonics blood washout solution. (For more details, see blood Washout replacement.) In some cases washout is begun before reaching 10C. The lower oxygen carrying capacity of water at higher temperatures will be compensated-for by the fact that the washout cah be done with a very cold solution, thereby accelerating the cooling rate. A cryonics patient perfused with an organ preservation solution can be shipped at water-ice temperature to a cryonics facility without substantial tissue damage as long as the shipment time is less than a half-day.
In some circumstances, as in rushing for a plane, blood washout has been skipped altogether on the theory that as long as heparin is preventing coagulation the washout step may cost more time than it is worth - and on the theory that blood can. The question concerning "how long is too long" for a patient at low temperature to go without circulation during shipping before tissues are damaged has typically been on circulatory adequacy. If the time is more than about 18 hours, injury to the circulatory system is too great to prevent good perfusion. (The prior condition of the patient will also be a factor, of course.) (return to contents). Perfusion with cryoprotectant cryoprotectants are antifreeze agents - agents to prevent ice formation and ice-crystal damage. Cryoprotectant mixed with water results in a solution that gradually solidifies as a syrupy glass rather than crystallizes - a process known as vitrification. Common cryoprotectants include: ethylene glycol - automobile antifreeze propylene glycol - eliminate ice-cream ice-crystals glycerol - blood, sperm dmso - embryos Glycerol has been used to preserve sperm blood since around 1950.
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Cooling is most effective when applied to the head, neck, groin and underarms due to the concentration of blood vessels close to the surface in those areas. Cooling is most rapid when applied as a cold flowing liquid applied to a broad surface. Flowing ice-water from a squid-like device cools much more rapidly than ice bags. Comparative time (depending on patient size) to cool to 10C would be in the range of: ice bags - 5 hours ice bath - 3 hours squid - 2 hours The artificial circulation established during initial cooldown can allow for short the delivery of medications. Such medications include heparin (to prevent blood coagulation dextrose (nutrient) and antioxidants (to reduce ischemic injury ). (For a more complete list see cryonics medications.) (return to contents) iii. Blood washout, replacing blood with organ preservation solution once the patient has reached 10C the blood should be removed. At 10C the metabolic rate has declined enough and the oxygen carrying capacity of water has increased enough that blood is no longer needed. (Water near freezing temperature can hold nearly three times as much dissolved oxygen as water near boiling temperature.) Moreover, at 10C blood begins to agglutinate, impeding circulation.
Cryonics procedures must be applied much sooner for there to be a reasonable hope of success. (return papers to contents). Initial cooldown while providing cardiopulmonary support under ideal circumstances a cryonics patient who has not experienced much brain damage from disease or aging will be declared legally dead in a hospital or hospice setting with a cryonics emergency-response team standing. Currently, only a small fraction of cryonics cases occur under these conditions, but there is hope for improvement. With a death certificate signed almost immediately following cessation of heartbeat respiration, a cryonics team restores heartbeat respiration with cpr and a heart-lung machine to keep the cells of the patients organs tissues alive. Manual cpr can provide one-third the circulation of a heart, and is quickly tiring. A heart-lung machine can provide two-thirds the circulation of a heart, giving much better oxygenation. The patient should be cooled from body temperature (37C) to 10C as quickly as possible, since each 10C temperature drop cuts metabolic rate in half.
begin in the brain. The main initial degenerative processes, however, are in the circulatory system - blood agglutination and vascular spasm. Brain ultrastructure can actually be maintained up to one hour without oxygen or nutrient. Attempts to restore blood circulation within even 10-15 minutes can be damaging. In reperfusion injury restoration of circulation after a long delay actually causes the blood oxygen to oxidize tissues rather than revive them. Within a few hours at room temperature ischemic injury, release of arachidonic acid from membranes and lactic acid produced by anaerobic metabolism (metabolism in the absence of oxygen) increases the acidity of tissues, including brain tissue. Lysosomes (acidic organelles containing hydrolytic enzymes) burst, further degrading tissue. Anaerobic clostridium bacteria (gangrene) accelerates tissue degredation. Within 24 hours at room temperature a dead person's brain will have virtually dissolved.
For cryonics to work brain tissue must be either front preserved intact or damaged in such a way that it can be repaired. A broken vase or an automobile with a flat tire can be repaired, but a vase dissolved in a vat of acid cannot be repaired. Cryonicists distinguish between damage and destruction, recognizing that destruction is irreparable and recognizing that some forms of damage may be irreparable today, but may be capable of being repaired by future molecular repair technology. Although freezing damage may someday be repaired, brain damage due. Alzheimer's Disease may be irreparable. A person who has died in their sleep and is not discovered for days probably has irreparable destruction of brain tissue. If a person is declared legally dead immediately upon cessation of heartbeat respiration, nearly all of the cells in that person's brain may still be alive.
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Cryonics protocol - a summary by ben Best, contents: links to sections by topic. Background, initial cooldown while providing cardiopulmonary support. Blood washout, replacing blood with organ preservation solution. Perfusion with cryoprotectant, cooldown to cryogenic temperatures, repeat if necessary. Background, the purpose of cryonics protocol is to minimize or eliminate cryopreservation damage in order to maximize the chance that a cryonics patient can eventually be restored to life, offer cured of all disease and even brought to a condition of enduring health youth. Cryonics protocol is discussed in great detail on several pages of this website, but a short summary can serve the purpose of providing perspective for understanding the details. (For more background on cryonics see my essay, cryonics: Frequently Asked questions (FAQ). cryonics protocol between legal declaration of death and long-term storage at cryogenic temperatures can be divided into four stages: (1) initial cooldown while providing cardiopulmonary support (2) blood washout, replacing blood with organ preservation solution (3) perfusion with cryoprotectant (4) cooldown to cryogenic temperatures.