This version has been described as "the most inexplicable" of the drafts and is sometimes referred to as the "second draft". 38 42 The "hay copy" was made either on the morning of the delivery of the Address, or shortly after Lincoln's return to washington. Those who believe that it was completed on the morning of his address point to the fact that it contains certain phrases that are not in the first draft but are in the reports of the address as delivered and in subsequent copies made. It is probable, they conclude, that, as stated in the explanatory note accompanying the original copies of the first and second drafts in the library of Congress, lincoln held this second draft when he delivered the address. 43 Lincoln eventually gave this copy to his other personal secretary, john hay, whose descendants donated both it and the nicolay copy to the library of Congress in 1916. 44 everett copy The everett copy, c also known as the "Everett-keyes copy was sent by President Lincoln to Edward everett in early 1864, at everett's request. Everett was collecting the speeches at the gettysburg dedication into one bound volume to sell for the benefit of stricken soldiers at New York's Sanitary commission fair.
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37 38 Scholars disagree over whether the nicolay copy was actually the reading copy lincoln held at Gettysburg on november. In an 1894 article that included a facsimile of this copy, best nicolay, who had become the custodian of Lincoln's papers, wrote that Lincoln had brought to gettysburg the first part of the speech written in ink on Executive mansion stationery, and that he had written. 37 Matching folds are still evident on the two pages, suggesting it could be the copy that eyewitnesses say lincoln took from his coat pocket and read at the ceremony. 38 39 Others believe that the delivery text has been lost, because some of the words and phrases of the nicolay copy do not match contemporary transcriptions of Lincoln's original speech. 40 The words "under God for example, are missing in this copy from the phrase "that this nation shall have a new birth of freedom." In order for the nicolay draft to have been the reading copy, either the contemporary transcriptions were inaccurate, or Lincoln. This copy of the gettysburg Address apparently remained in John Nicolay's possession until his death in 1901, when it passed to his friend and colleague john hay. 32 It used to be on display as part of the American Treasures exhibition of the library of Congress in Washington,. 41 hay copy The hay copy, with Lincoln's handwritten corrections The existence of the hay copy b was first announced to the public in 1906, after the search for the "original manuscript" of the Address among the papers of John hay brought it to light. 32 Significantly, it differs somewhat from the manuscript of the Address described by john Nicolay in his article, and contains numerous omissions and inserts in Lincoln's own hand, including omissions critical to the basic meaning of the sentence, not simply words that would be added. In this copy, as in the nicolay copy, the words "under God" are not present.
32 Both of these drafts were written around the time of his november 19 address, while the other three copies of the address, the everett, bancroft, and Bliss copies, were written by lincoln for charitable purposes well after november. 33 34 In part because lincoln provided a title and signed and dated the Bliss copy, it has become the standard text of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. 35 Nicolay and hay were appointed custodians of Lincoln's papers by lincoln's son Robert Todd Lincoln in 1874. 32 After appearing in facsimile in an article written by john Nicolay in 1894, the nicolay copy essay was presumably among the papers passed to hay by nicolay's daughter Helen upon Nicolay's death in 1901. Robert Lincoln began a search for the original copy in 1908, which resulted in the discovery of a handwritten copy of the gettysburg Address among the bound papers of John hay—a copy now known as the "hay copy" or "hay draft". 32 The hay draft differed from the version of the gettysburg Address published by john Nicolay in 1894 in a number of significant ways: it was written on a different type of paper, had a different number of words per line and number of lines. 32 Both the hay and Nicolay copies of the Address are within the library of Congress, encased in specially designed, temperature-controlled, sealed containers with argon gas in order to protect the documents from oxidation and continued deterioration. 36 Nicolay copy The nicolay copy a is often called the "first draft" because it is believed to be the earliest copy that exists.
In form, and in substance, it emanates from them. Its powers are granted by them, and are to short be exercised directly on them, and for their benefit." Lincoln, a lawyer and President engaged in the greatest struggle of federalism, was (more eloquently) echoing the preeminent case that had ions solidified federal power over the States. Wills observed Lincoln's usage of the imagery of birth, life, and death in reference to a nation "brought forth "conceived and that shall not "perish". 28 Others, including Allen. Guelzo, the director of civil War Era studies at Gettysburg College in Pennsylvania, 29 suggested that Lincoln's formulation "four score and seven" was an allusion to the king James Version of the bible's Psalms 90:10, in which man's lifespan is given as "threescore years and. 30 31 five manuscripts Each of the five known manuscript copies of the gettysburg Address is named for the person who received it from Lincoln. Lincoln gave copies to his private secretaries, john Nicolay and John hay.
One of these was a lecture on 'The Effect of Slavery on the American people'. Which I gave to lincoln, who read and returned. He liked especially the following expression, which he marked with a pencil, and which he in substance afterwards used in his Gettysburg Address: 'democracy is direct self-government, over all the people, for all the people, by all the people.' 25 Craig. Smith, in "Criticism of Political Rhetoric and Disciplinary Integrity suggested Lincoln's view of the government as expressed in the gettysburg Address was influenced by the noted speech of Massachusetts Senator Daniel Webster, the "Second Reply to hayne", in which Webster famously thundered "Liberty and Union. 27 Webster also noted, "This government, sir, is the independent offspring of the popular will. It is not the creature of State legislatures; nay, more, if the whole truth must be told, the people brought it into existence, established it, and have hitherto supported it, for the very purpose, amongst others, of imposing certain salutary restraints on State sovereignties.". Maryland (1819 a case asserting federal authority to create a national bank and to be free from the State's powers to tax. In asserting the superiority of federal power over the states, Chief Justice marshall stated: "The government of the Union, then (whatever may be the influence of this fact on the case is, emphatically and truly, a government of the people.
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But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate—we can not consecrate—we can not hallow—this writing ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall. Lincoln's sources In Lincoln at Gettysburg, garry wills notes the parallels between Lincoln's speech and Pericles's Funeral Oration during the peloponnesian War as described by Thucydides. (James McPherson notes this connection in his review of Wills's book.
20 Gore vidal also draws attention to this link in a bbc documentary about oration. 21 ) Pericles' speech, like lincoln's: Begins with an acknowledgment of revered predecessors: "I shall begin with our ancestors: it is both just and proper that they should have the honor of the first mention on an occasion like the present" Praises the uniqueness. (It is difficult to find a single obviously classical reference in any of his speeches.) Lincoln had mastered the sound of the king James Bible so completely that he could recast abstract issues of constitutional law in Biblical terms, making the proposition that Texas and. The title figure bears a tablet inscribed with Lincoln's famous phrase. Several theories have been advanced by lincoln scholars to explain the provenance of Lincoln's famous phrase "government of the people, by the people, for the people". Despite many claims, there is no evidence a similar phrase appears in the Prologue to john Wycliffe 's 1384 English translation of the bible. 23 In a discussion "A more probable origin of a famous Lincoln phrase 24 in The American Monthly review of reviews, albert Shaw credits a correspondent with pointing out the writings of William Herndon, lincoln's law partner, who wrote in the 1888 work Abraham Lincoln.
15 Text of the gettysburg Address Shortly after everett's well-received remarks, lincoln spoke for only a few minutes. 16 With a "few appropriate remarks he was able to summarize his view of the war in just ten sentences. Despite the historical significance of Lincoln's speech, modern scholars disagree as to its exact wording, and contemporary transcriptions published in newspaper accounts of the event and even handwritten copies by lincoln himself differ in their wording, punctuation, and structure. 17 18 Of these versions, the Bliss version, written well after the speech as a favor for a friend, is viewed by many as the standard text. 19 Its text differs, however, from the written versions prepared by lincoln before and after his speech.
It is the only version to which Lincoln affixed his signature, and the last he is known to have written. 19 The five extant versions of Lincoln's remarks, presented as a single annotated text. A b c d e four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
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It is Great for Our country to biography die words by james. Percival, music by Alfred Delaney sung by Choir selected for the occasion Benediction, by reverend. 10 While it is Lincoln's short speech that has gone down in history as one of summary the finest examples of English public oratory, it was everett's two-hour oration that was slated to be the "Gettysburg address" that day. His now seldom-read 13,607-word oration began: Standing beneath this serene sky, overlooking these broad fields now reposing from the labors of the waning year, the mighty Alleghenies dimly towering before us, the graves of our brethren beneath our feet, it is with hesitation that. But the duty to which you have called me must be performed;—grant me, i pray you, your indulgence and your sympathy. 13 And ended two hours later with: But they, i am sure, will join us in saying, as we bid farewell to the dust of these martyr-heroes, that wheresoever throughout the civilized world the accounts of this great warfare are read, and down to the. 14 Lengthy dedication addresses like everett's were common at cemeteries in this era. The tradition began in 1831 when Justice joseph Story delivered the dedication address at mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, massachusetts. Those addresses often linked cemeteries to the mission of Union.
A protracted illness followed, which included a vesicular rash and was diagnosed as a mild case of red smallpox. It thus seems highly likely that Lincoln was in the prodromal period of smallpox when he delivered the gettysburg address. 11 Program and everett's "Gettysburg Oration" Edward everett delivered a two-hour oration before lincoln's short remarks. The program organized for that day by wills and his committee included: Music, by birgfeld's Band 12 homage d'uns Heros" by Adolph Birgfeld) Prayer, by reverend. Music, by the marine band Old Hundred directed by Francis Scala Oration, by hon. Edward everett The battles of Gettysburg music, hymn consecration Chant. French, Esq., music by wilson g horner, sung by baltimore Glee club Dedicatory remarks, by the President of the United States Dirge oh!
President Lincoln: "It is the desire that, after the Oration, you, as Chief Executive of the nation, formally set apart these grounds to their sacred use. Edward everett At the consecration of the national Cemetery At Gettysburg, 19th november 1863, with the dedicatory Speech of President Lincoln, and the Other Exercises of the Occasion; Accompanied by An Account of the Origin of the Undertaking and of the Arrangement of the cemetery. During the train trip from Washington,. C., to gettysburg on november 18, lincoln remarked to john hay that he felt weak. On the morning of november 19, lincoln mentioned to john Nicolay that he was dizzy. In the railroad car the President rode with his secretary, john. Nicolay, his assistant secretary, john hay, the three members of his Cabinet who accompanied him, william Seward, john Usher and Montgomery Blair, several foreign officials and others. Hay noted that during the speech Lincoln's face had 'a ghastly color' and that he was 'sad, mournful, almost haggard.' After the speech, when Lincoln boarded the 6:30 pm train for Washington,. C., he was feverish and weak, with a severe headache.
Declaration of Independence 6 and proclaimed the civil War as a struggle for the preservation of the Union sundered by the secession crisis, 7 with "a new birth of freedom " 8 that would bring true equality to all of its citizens. 9, lincoln also redefined the civil War as a struggle not just for the Union, but also for the principle of human equality. 6, beginning with the now-iconic phrase "Four score and seven years ago"—referring to the signing of the. Declaration of Independence eighty-seven years earlier—Lincoln invoked the United States' founding principles as set forth in that document, then reminded his listeners of the peril to those principles posed by the civil War then in progress. He extolled the sacrifices of those who died at Gettysburg in defense of those principles, and exhorted his listeners to continue the struggle for survival of the nation's representative democracy as a beacon to the world—urging resolve that these dead mother shall not have died. Despite the speech's prominent place in the history and popular culture of the United States, the exact wording and location of the speech are disputed. The five known manuscripts of the gettysburg Address in Lincoln's hand differ in a number of details, and also differ from contemporary newspaper reprints of the speech. Modern scholarship locates the speakers' platform 40 yards (or more) away from the Traditional Site within Soldiers' national Cemetery at the soldiers' national Monument and entirely within private, adjacent evergreen Cemetery.
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One of the two confirmed photos of Lincoln 1 2 3 (center, facing camera) at Gettysburg, taken about noon, just after british he arrived and some three hours before his speech. To his right is his bodyguard, ward Hill Lamon. The, gettysburg Address is a speech by,. President, abraham Lincoln, and one of the best-known speeches. 4 5, it was delivered by lincoln during the. American civil War at the dedication of the, soldiers' national Cemetery in, gettysburg, pennsylvania, on the afternoon of Thursday, november 19, 1863, four and a half months after the. Union armies defeated those of the, confederacy at the, battle of Gettysburg. Lincoln's carefully crafted address, secondary to others' presentations that day, came to be seen as one of the greatest and most influential statements of American national purpose. In just over two minutes, lincoln reiterated the principles of human equality espoused by the.